India Horror stories: snakes, spiders and toads

In theory snakes in India are very even, a year from snake bites killed 50 thousand people. It is in a snake were the cause of my unwillingness to go to India, because it seemed to me that there are snakes everywhere: hiding under every stone and hanging on each branch.

Now, the first four-month trip to India not a single snake on the way I came across. It was the jungle and in various other habitats of snakes. Okay snake I have not met a loving person not to wear glasses. But the conversations with other travelers revealed the same fact: a snake in India is necessary to search for specially. Of course, some “lucky” and those who consciously sought out. But mostly snakes nobody saw.

The fact is that snakes don’t eat people, and catch mainly mice and rats, so the easiest way to come across a poisonous snake in the rice or barley field. It is therefore logical that one of those 50 thousand people that die every year from snakebites in India, almost all farmers, as the agricultural activity attracts creeping reptiles, but Indian doctors. which can inject anti-typhoid serum in the field about a remote village difficult to find, here and dying peasants. If the snake the snake will bite You and it will be given proper medical treatment, chances of survival are very high. The question is who will bite.

Assessment of the risk of being Continue reading

Molting in snakes

What is molting

Molt (General definition) – the process of change of the integuments of animals having diverse nature.

Among invertebrates typical molt occurs in nematodes, kolovorotny, arthropods and similar groups. Most of these animals is regulated by the molting hormone ecdysone 1. Given that molecular phylogenetics of these groups related to each other, the last time United under the name Ecdysosoa – Moulting. These groups molt is limited to periodic flushing and replacement of cuticle. Before the molt, the inner layers of the old cuticle dissolved, and under it the cells of the hypodermis secrete a new cuticle. After molting, the animal rapidly increases in size (usually by absorption of water or “blowing” air) before hardening of the new cuticle, after which the growth stops until the next molt (periodic growth).

The nematodes molt larvae (usually there are four larval stage), adult nematodes do not grow and do not shed. Most groups of arthropods (crustaceans, spiders, etc.) molting and growth continues throughout life.

Molting in insects, as a rule, multi-stage larvae; in insects with complete metamorphosis during the last moult the larva turns into a pupa, and after the flushing of the skin of the pupa, the insect transforms into an adult form — adults. In insects Continue reading

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