First aid for snake bites
Despite the fact that the number of casualties from snake bites is small, it is necessary to take certain precautions, should be monitored closely for shoes, avoid walking barefoot in areas where there are venomous snakes, because most often the bite is applied in the leg. To be able to distinguish venomous snakes from harmless to be able to provide first aid. To distinguish poisonous snakes from non-poisonous not only by the appearance of a reptile, but even in nature inflicted the bite. A poisonous snake leaves the skin with a trace in the form of two large, round wounds where the poison is injected, between which are two rows of small dots are the traces of small teeth. Unlike the wounds left by a venomous snake, markings bites of non-poisonous snakes (the snake, the boa) look like four rows of very fine dots.
All snake venoms mechanism of action are divided into 2 groups:
1) poisons acting on the blood (the pit Viper, steppe Viper, Viper) — there is severe pain, the affected area of the body turns red, develops swelling, increased or decreased temperature may be a fever, in the urine, the feces appears blood, the patient suffers from vomiting. In severe cases, the victim permanently loses the ability to work, and sometimes die;
2) poisons acting on the Central nervous system (Cobra): acute pain and swelling at the bite site are observed. Soon there comes weakness, develops a rigidity of the muscles, become paralyzed limbs, the muscles of the lips and throat; the tongue is taken away, difficulty breathing, and possible loss of vision.
The bites of poisonous snakes is accompanied by various consequences: decisive factors determining the severity of the condition, are the composition of the poison and the quantity caught in the fabric. Often after the bite at the site of the lesion formed a deep, difficult healing of the wound, the edges of which later become ulcers. Moreover, even several months after recovery an individual may experience severe pain in the affected location.
Matters and the bite. Dangerous if the bite is inflicted to the chest or face. A serious danger is the ingestion of poison directly into a major blood vessel, as in this case, the speed of spread of venom through the body will increase several times, and the patient’s condition will worsen.
The main tool in the treatment of snake bites — the introduction of a special serum, which was prepared from horse blood.
However, not always there is a possibility of its use, therefore, of paramount importance is first aid:
1) to pull the harness of the affected arm or leg, a tourniquet is applied significantly above the bite, you need to catch the over his imposition of a maximum 20 minutes, otherwise its effectiveness decreases sharply;
2) to clean the wound, wash away the poison on the edge with alcohol, vodka or water to cut the bite of the cruciate incision to the poison out of the wound, should be pre-ignited match razor blade or penknife;
3) suck the blood, squeeze out the poison by squeezing the edges of the wound between his fingers. Not to suck the blood from the wound in that case, if the mouth has any cuts, scratches, sores, damage to mucous membrane, etc. as in this case, the victim or the man who came to his aid, poisoned with poison;
4) tape up the wound, remove the tourniquet.
Then the victim should provide complete physical and emotional rest. In order to remove residues from the body of the poison, should the patient drink tea or coffee, this also supports the work of the heart.
In a medical facility as soon as possible to enter the victim anticlinal serum, injection, effective for 8 hours after the bite. Drug therapy includes the maintenance of heart function, breathing. Spend subcutaneous injection of a 0.1% solution of epinephrine 1% solution of novocaine. Sometimes used for subcutaneous injection of 5% solution of ephedrine. Perhaps the introduction intravenously of a 1% pilocarpine solution, 10% solution of calcium chloride.
In severe poisoning, the poison of the snake is shown holding the transfusion. Researcher G. I. Ishunin reports that, in addition to the above medicines, under the skin or intravenously need to enter 500-1000 cubic centimeters of isotonic sodium chloride — this will help increase urination, and therefore, to remove the poison from the body. Great value in the treatment of poisonous snake has bitten and a kind of psychotherapy, which consists in quieting the patient and the assurance of a favorable outcome.