CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

6 OF POISONS OF NATURAL ORIGIN

Fig. 46. Psylocyba semilanceata

eating large doses of pyridoxine

7. If you suspect orellanus syndrome, the patient should be hospitalized in a medical facility, in which the dialysis Department.

8. With the development of muscarinic syndrome treatment is made using a competitive

Fig. 47. Patlaeolus subalteatus

rental of antagonist — atropine, a single dose of which should not exceed the average therapeutic (0.01 mg/kg of body weight).

9. When atropinic syndrome is best administered sedatives, for example, 1,4-Ben-zodiazepine (Relanium ML—0.2 mg/kg),

THE BITES OF POISONOUS SNAKES, BEES AND SCORPIONS

6.3. The bites of poisonous snakes, bees and Scorpions

6.3.1. Toxicity of snake venom

General questions

According to who, the annual number bitten by a poisonous snake is about 500,000 people, of which about 50,000 die (JAMA, 1973).

Intoxication with poison snakes are almost on the whole territory of Russia and CIS countries. CIS found 58 species of snakes, 10 of them are poisonous to humans: the 7 members of the family ha-dukovich snakes (Viper, sand Viper, common adder, steppe, big-nosed, Caucasian and Asia minor), 2 representatives of the family Yam-korolovych snakes or rattle snakes — rattlesnakes (common Copperhead and Eastern) and 1 representative of the family of coral snakes — Central Asian Cobra (Spivakov G. M. 1975).

Often bitten are people aged 20-50 years (57%). Children, especially younger children, are bitten by poisonous snakes in 30% of cases. The mortality from the bites of the Cobra and the Viper is 8-15%, deaths from the bites of vipers are seen in 2-12% of cases (parmenov is currently hospitalized, V. I. 1968), but in children it is higher and reaches 25% (ishaki Y. V. Zhavoronkov, A. A., 1968).

As a rule, snakes are themselves not attack per person. They bite in self-defense, when people accidentally step on them, grab the arm with the grass, branches of bushes, chasing them. Therefore, boots or high boots, stick to survey hazardous locations, and flushed the serpent, cautious in the field, in the meadow, in haystacks, in the woods, around the campfire: interviews with children, including a description of the venomous snakes of rules and behavior in Hiking and on walks, can all serve as a prevention of snake bites.

The poison is produced and contains special glands and alveolarization, reaching sometimes 1/2 of body length of the snake. When they bite the poison is squeezed out through the excretory ducts of the glands and channels (Cobra) or the grooves (the vipers and rattle snakes) poisonous teeth, reaching a length of 1 to 1.5 see poison fangs movable in the closed jaws of the serpent, they are in a horizontal position, when opening the jaws and when they bite you, the teeth are vertical. Serpent sting — the organ of touch.

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